Cordyceps, a genus of fungi, has a fascinating life cycle that involves parasitizing the larvae of moths in the order Lepidoptera, in recent years the mushroom has gained popularity for its potential antifatigue effects and its traditional use in enhancing sexual function. Cordyceps militaris, a species closely related to Cordyceps sinensis, has also been studied for its various bioactive compounds, including cordycepin, ergosterol, and linoleic acid.
Recent research has shed light on the potential of Cordyceps to support testosterone production and improve male reproductive health. Studies conducted on animal models and in vitro cultured cells have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms by which Cordyceps could have some effect on testosterone levels.
It's important to note, that animal studies often don't translate to humans, but considering there are a lot of claims around the mushroom, it's interesting to look at where they come from.
While research on cordyceps' effects on testosterone levels is still in its early stages, promising findings from animal studies have piqued the interest of scientists. A study published in the journal BioMed Research International demonstrated that cordyceps mushroom cultures may boost testosterone levels, improve erectile function, and enhance sex drive in rats. These findings suggest that cordyceps might have longevity benefits, inhibiting conditions such as hypogonadism and prostate hypertrophy that can interfere with healthy erections. 
Furthermore, cordyceps supplements have shown potential in improving athletic performance by increasing blood flow. This increased circulation may contribute to enhanced physical endurance and stamina, allowing individuals to reach their fitness goals more efficiently. 
It's worth noting however, that the dosages used in humans for any positive results have usually been between 3-6 grams,  which is far more than the amounts in most lower quality supplements. And it is commonly under dosed in supposed testosterone boosting supplements.
Effects of Cordyceps on Late-Onset Hypogonadism (LOH)
Animal models of LOH, induced by castration, have been used to evaluate the effects of Cordyceps on testosterone levels and symptoms of andropause. In these models, Cordyceps supplementation has been found to maintain serum testosterone and DHT levels, preventing the decline associated with age-related dysfunction of testicular Leydig cells. Cordyceps also demonstrated the ability to increase the secretion of testosterone and DHT by primary testicular cells without altering the expression of steroidogenic enzymes.
Impact on Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH)
The excessive conversion of testosterone to DHT by 5α-reductases is thought to be involved in causing BPH. Cordyceps has shown promise in managing BPH by regulating androgen levels. It has been observed to inhibit the growth of prostatic cell lines and decrease prostatic cell proliferation. 
Cordyceps and Sexual Function
Sexual function is a key aspect of male reproductive health, and Cordyceps has shown promise in enhancing sexual performance. Studies conducted on animal models have demonstrated that Cordyceps supplementation can improve erectile function, testicular function, and sex drive. These effects may be attributed to the ability of Cordyceps to stimulate testosterone production and maintain androgen levels. While research in humans is limited, the findings from these animal studies provide a promising foundation for further exploration of Cordyceps' effects on sexual function in men. 
Beyond its effects on testosterone and reproductive health, Cordyceps has also been studied for its potential to enhance athletic performance. Cordyceps supplementation has been shown to increase blood flow, which may contribute to improved endurance and exercise performance. While the specific mechanisms behind these performance-enhancing effects are not fully understood, the ability of Cordyceps to support energy production at the cellular level is believed to play a role. 
Exploring the Mechanisms of Cordyceps' Testosterone-Boosting Effects
The precise mechanisms by which Cordyceps exerts its testosterone-boosting effects are still being investigated. However, several potential pathways have been proposed based on the available research. Here are some key mechanisms that may contribute to Cordyceps' ability to support testosterone production:
Activation of Protein Kinase A (PKA) Pathway
Studies have suggested that Cordyceps activates the PKA pathway in Leydig cells, which plays a crucial role in steroidogenesis. This activation of PKA may enhance the production of testosterone by stimulating the expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in testosterone synthesis. Additionally, Cordyceps has been found to upregulate the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), which transports cholesterol into the mitochondria for testosterone production. 
Regulation of cAMP Levels
Cordyceps has also been shown to influence the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a key messenger molecule involved in testosterone synthesis. By modulating cAMP levels, Cordyceps may regulate the activity of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, such as 5α-reductases. This regulation of cAMP may contribute to Cordyceps' ability to maintain androgen levels and prevent the excessive conversion of testosterone to DHT. 
Interaction with Adenosine Receptors
Cordycepin, a bioactive compound found in Cordyceps, has been shown to interact with adenosine receptors in the body. Adenosine receptors, particularly the A2a and A3 subtypes, are involved in the regulation of testosterone synthesis. Cordycepin has been found to upregulate A2a adenosine receptors and downregulate A2b receptors, leading to increased testosterone production. This interaction with adenosine receptors may contribute to the testosterone-boosting effects of Cordyceps.
Safety Considerations and Potential Side Effects of Cordyceps
While Cordyceps supplements are generally considered safe for human consumption, it's important to exercise caution and consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen. Individuals with diabetes, cancer, or bleeding disorders should avoid Cordyceps, as it may affect blood clotting. It is also advisable to discontinue Cordyceps supplementation at least two weeks before undergoing any surgical procedures. As with any supplement, it's crucial to choose high-quality sources and follow recommended dosage guidelines. 
Can Cordyceps Boost Testosterone?
It's certainly not the most well studied of supplements that can potentially raise testosterone levels, although there is some reasonable evidence to suggest it is possible. Generally speaking it would most likely require a dose of 3-6 grams daily, although far more research is needed before anything other than pure acedemic speculation is viable.
1 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824671/
2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3909570/
3 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5236007/
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5 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9415290/
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7 - https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24286368/
8 - https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25009703/
9 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356751/