Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid is quite essential for joint health. Ultimately the two most asked questions around it are whether or not too much vitamin c can effect joints and whether vitamin c can help with arthritis.
The first one is relatively quick to answer, and that is to say that excessive intake of vitamin C is generally safe and does not cause joint pain.
In terms of whether or not Vitamin C can help with joint pain it is essential for collagen synthesis, the main protein in joint tissue and bone, so it certainly plays a part. Where things get more interesting is that vitamin C seems to have analgesic properties that can help reduce joint pain.
As a result several studies have started looking into the potential benefits of vitamin C in alleviating joint pain, reducing inflammation, and protecting against cartilage damage associated with arthritis although the research is still relatively new.
There is some reseasrch on how vitamin C can effect arthritis progression, but it seems to mostly effect the development of it to begin with, and potentially have some impact on immune based arthritis, but there is evidence to suggest it is less effect for OA.
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties
One of the key reasons why vitamin C is believed to benefit joint health is its antioxidant properties. Antioxidants help neutralize harmful molecules called free radicals, which can trigger inflammation and damage joint tissues. By reducing oxidative stress, vitamin C may help mitigate inflammation in the joints.
A study published in 2019 investigated the association between vitamin C intake and inflammatory markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The researchers found that higher blood levels of vitamin C were associated with lower levels of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), a marker of inflammation. This suggests that vitamin C intake may contribute to reducing inflammation in arthritis patients. 
Collagen Synthesis and Cartilage Protection
Collagen is a vital component of joint tissues, providing strength and structure. Vitamin C plays a crucial role as a cofactor in collagen synthesis, supporting the production and maintenance of healthy cartilage. It is also involved in chondrogenic differentiation, the process by which precursor cells develop into cartilage cells.
Several studies have explored the potential of vitamin C in protecting against cartilage damage in osteoarthritis. In a study on rats, vitamin C supplementation was found to reduce cartilage degradation, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and prevent arthritic damage to joints. Similarly, a study using cell cultures found that vitamin C induced reactions that protected cartilage against damage. [2,3]
Modulating the Autoimmune Response
In the case of rheumatoid arthritis, where the immune system attacks joint tissues, vitamin C may play a role in modulating the autoimmune response. A population-based study found that individuals with a higher intake of vitamin C had a lower risk of developing inflammatory polyarthritis, a type of rheumatoid arthritis affecting multiple joints. This suggests that vitamin C may help prevent the progression of autoimmune-related arthritis. 
Alleviating Joint Pain
Joint pain is a common symptom in various forms of arthritis, and vitamin C may offer some relief. A study published in the Journal of Translational Medicine in 2017 explored the pain relieving properties of vitamin C. The researchers found that vitamin C possessed pain relieving properties and worked along similar pathways as opioids. In addition, patients taking vitamin C alongside opioids for post-surgical pain required less medication for relief. 
Recommended Intake and Food Sources
To harness the potential benefits of vitamin C for joint health, it is essential to ensure an adequate intake. The Office of Dietary Supplements recommends a daily intake of 90 milligrams (mg) for men and 75 mg for women. This is generally easy to achieve through diet. 
The Controversy Surrounding Vitamin C and Arthritis
Despite the potential benefits of vitamin C for joint health, the research on its efficacy in preventing and treating arthritis is still rather mixed. Some studies have shown very positive results, while others have found no noticable effects. There are a few reasons for this, for example different age groups and time taken with supplementing vitamin c, but it's all still a bit inconclusive to say the least.
For example, a study conducted over ten years on vitamin C supplementation and knee osteoarthritis progression found that participants who took supplemental vitamin C were 11% less likely to develop osteoarthritis all together.  However, the study did not find a significant difference in the progression of osteoarthritis between the supplemented and non-supplemented groups for those who did in fact develop OA. So it's possibly that Vitamin C may play more of a role in immune based arthritis types.
Vitamin C and Joint Pain: Can Vitamin C Prevent Arthritis
In short, vitamin C is essential for joint health, it seems it can play a role in reducing pain, but as to whether or not it can reduce the risks of arhtritis the jury is still out on that one. Either way it has a host of other benefits, from immune health and tissue repair, so it's always good to make sure you're getting enough.
1 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8950002/
2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8543556/
3 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3783921/
4 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1755070/
5 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5391567/
6 - https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-Consumer/
7 - https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20707943/